The C1-C2 Vertebrae and Spinal Segment References

  1. Mead LB, Millhouse PW, Krystal J, Vaccaro AR. C1 fractures: a review of diagnoses, management options, and outcomes. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2016;9(3):255-62.
  2. Schleicher P, Scholz M, Pingel A, Kandziora F. Traumatic Spondylolisthesis of the Axis Vertebra in Adults. Global Spine J. 2015;5(4):346-58.
  3. Berlowitz DJ, Wadsworth B, Ross J. Respiratory problems and management in people with spinal cord injury. Breathe. 2016;12(4):328-340. doi:10.1183/20734735.012616.
  4. Kendler DL, Bauer DC, Davison KS, et al. Vertebral Fractures: Clinical Importance and Management. The American Journal of Medicine. 2016;129(2):221.e1-221.e10. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.09.020
  5. Abi-Aad KR, Derian A. Cervical, Traction. StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Jan-. Available from:
  6. Aiudi CM, Hooten WM, Sanders RA, et al. Outcomes of C1-2 joint injections. J Pain Res. 2017;10:2263-2269. Published 2017 Sep 18. doi:10.2147/JPR.S144255
  7. Nehete LS, Bhat DI, Gopalakrishnan MS, et al. Unusual cause of high cervical myelopathy-C1 arch stenosis. J Craniovertebr Junction Spine. 2018;9(1):37-43.
  8. De Iure F, Donthineni R, Boriani S. Outcomes of C1 and C2 posterior screw fixation for upper cervical spine fusion. Eur Spine J. 2009;18 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):2-6.
  9. Chang KC, Samartzis D, Fuego SM, et al. The effect of excision of the posterior arch of C1 on C1/C2 fusion using transarticular screws. Bone Joint J. 2013;95-B(7):972-6.
  10. Tenny S, Varacallo M. Odontoid Fractures (Dens Fractures) [Updated 2019 Jan 19]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Jan-. Available from:
  11. Wang L, Liu C, Zhao QH, Tian JW. Outcomes of surgery for unstable odontoid fractures combined with instability of adjacent segments. J Orthop Surg Res. 2014;9:64. Published 2014 Aug 28. doi:10.1186/s13018-014-0064-9