Neck Cracking and Grinding: What Does It Mean References

  1. Unsworth A, Dowson D, Wright V. ‘Cracking joints’ A bioengineering study of cavitation in the metacarpophalangeal joint. Ann Rheum Dis. 1971; 30: 348-358.
  2. Kawchuk GN, Fryer J, Jaremko JL, Zeng H, Rowe L, Thompson R. Real-time visualization of joint cavitation. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(4):e0119470
  3. Chandran suja V, Barakat AI. A Mathematical Model for the Sounds Produced by Knuckle Cracking. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):4600
  4. Robertson CJ, Hurley M, Jones F. People's beliefs about the meaning of crepitus in patellofemoral pain and the impact of these beliefs on their behaviour: A qualitative study. Musculoskelet Sci Pract. 2017;28:59-64.
  5. Boutin RD, Netto AP, Nakamura D, et al. Knuckle cracking: can blinded observers detect changes with physical examination and sonography? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2017; 475(4):1265-71.
  6. Deweber K, Olszewski M, Ortolano R. Knuckle cracking and hand osteoarthritis. J Am Board Fam Med. 2011;24(2):169-74.
  7. Cassidy JD, Boyle E, Cote P, et al. Risk of vertebrobasilar stroke and chiropractic care – results of a population-based case-control and case crossover study. Spine. 2008;33:S176-83.
  8. Symons B, Herzog W. Cervical artery dissection: a biomechanical perspective. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2013 Dec;57(4):276–8.
  9. Haynes MJ, Vincent K. Vertebral strains during high speed, low amplitude cervical spinal manipulation. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2012;22(6):1017.
  10. Herzog W, Leonard TR, Symons B, Tang C, Wuest S. Vertebral artery strains during high-speed, low amplitude cervical spinal manipulation. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2012;22(5):740-6.
  11. Symons B, Wuest S, Leonard T, Herzog W. Biomechanical characterization of cervical spinal manipulation in living subjects and cadavers. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2012;22(5):747-51.
  12. Wuest S, Symons B, Leonard T, Herzog W. Preliminary report: biomechanics of vertebral artery segments C1-C6 during cervical spinal manipulation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2010;33(4):273-8.