The following resources were referenced during the creation of this article, and are good sources to learn more about manipulation under anesthesia.

  1. Greenman, PE: Manipulation with the patient under anesthesia. J. Amer. Osteopathic Assoc., 92(9):1159 -1167, Sept. 1992.

  2. West, D.C., C.C.R.D., Mathews, M.D., Miller, PA-C, Kent, M.D. "Effect of Management of Spinal Pain in 200 Patients Evaluated for Manipulation Under Anesthesia." J. Neurol Oethop Med Surg. (1998) 18: pp. 31-42.

  3. Guidelines for Chiropractic Quality Assurance and Practice Parameters: Proceedings of the Mercy Center Consensus Conference, Burlingame, CA, January 25 - 30, 1992. S Haldeman et al (eds.), Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers, Inc. 1993.

  4. Dreyfuss P, et al. MUJA: Manipulation under joint anesthesia/analgesia: A treatment approach for recalcitrant low back pain of synovial joint origin. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1995;18:537-546.

  5. Davis CG. Chronic cervical spine pain treated with manipulation under anesthesia. J Neuromusculoskeletal Syst. 1996;4:102-115.

  6. Francis R. Spinal manipulation under general anesthesia: A chiropractic approach in a hospital setting. J Am Chiro Assoc. 1989; Dec:39-41.

  7. Alexander GK. Manipulation under anesthesia of lumbar post-laminectomy syndrome patients with epidural fibrosis and recurrent HNP. J Am Chiro Assoc. 1993;June:79-81.

  8. Dan NG, Saccasan PA. Serious complications of lumbar spinal manipulation. Med J Aust. 1983;2(12):672-673.

  9. Hughes BL.Management of cervical disk syndrome utilizing manipulation under anesthesia. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1993;16:174-181.

  10. Aspegren DD, et al. Manipulation under epidural anesthesia with corticosteroid injection: Two case reports.J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1997;20(9):618-621.

Further Reading: Chiropractic Adjustment