Calcium is the most common mineral in the body, primarily found in bones and teeth. It is essential for maintaining the bone mass necessary to support the skeleton. The body is also constantly using calcium in muscle and nerve functions as well as to carry out functions in the heart. Most calcium is lost through normal bodily processes in the kidneys and colon, with minor amounts lost through sweat and the shedding of hair, fingernails, and skin.

If a patient’s diet does not include enough calcium to replace what is used, the body will pull from the stored supply of calcium in the bones, weakening them and increasing the risk of fracture. It is estimated that only 32% of adults in the U.S. receive enough calcium from their diet alone, and even with dietary supplements most people still do not receive adequate calcium intakes.8

See When Back Pain Is a Spine Compression Fracture

Article continues below

Dietary Sources of Calcium

By eating a diet that includes adequate amounts of the following nutritional foods, patients can maintain a healthy level of calcium through diet alone and without the use of supplements:

  • Dairy products (yogurt, cheese and especially milk)
  • Dark green leafy vegetables (spinach, broccoli and kale)
  • Beans and peas (tofu, peanuts, peas, black beans)
  • Some types of fish (salmon, sardines)
  • Other foods rich in calcium (oranges, blackstrap molasses, almonds)

See Sources of Calcium in Food

If one is not eating enough of the above foods as part of a daily diet, calcium supplements may be a viable option to ensure there is sufficient calcium intake.

Obtaining the Right Amount of Calcium in the Diet

The recommended amounts of calcium for adults are as follows9:

  • Adults between ages 19 and 50: 1,000 mg of calcium per day
  • Men aged 51 to 70 years: 1000 mg per day
  • Women aged 51 to 70: 1200 mg per day
  • Adults aged 71 and older: 1200 mg per day

See Calcium and Vitamin D Requirements

Patients should note that consuming more than 2,000 milligrams of calcium per day can be harmful to the kidneys and cause kidney stones.9 This does not occur when calcium is consumed in the recommended doses. Patients who already have kidney disease should consult with a health professional before taking any supplemental calcium.

Article continues below

Preventing Osteoporosis

It is especially important for children and teens to receive enough calcium and other bone nutrients for proper development and strength of the bones. Over time, insufficient calcium and other bone nutrients in the diet significantly increases the risk of developing osteoporosis (thinning of the bone).

See Calcium Requirements for Kids' Growing Bones

Osteoporosis can result in fractures in the bones in the spine, which in turn can lead to chronic pain and possibly deformity. The risk of developing osteoporosis is higher for older women due to women’s generally lower body weight, lower bone mass, and hormonal changes that occur after menopause.

See Why Women Are at Greater Risk for Developing Osteoporosis

The process of maintaining strong bones involves the following steps:

  • Obtain bone nutrients regularly in the diet by consuming quality foods and beverages that maximize absorption from the gut
  • Reduce food and drink choices that interfere with bone nutrient absorption
  • Incorporate lifestyle choices that improve bone integrity, such as adequate exercise and hydration while reducing salt and soda consumption
  • Consider nutritional supplements if bone integrity is a concern

See Osteoporosis Prevention

As a final note of advice, patients should take care to always consult a healthcare professional before changing their diet or taking dietary supplements. Working with a professional will also help patients develop and stick with a comprehensive program of consuming nutritious foods, avoiding excessive amounts of unhealthy foods, choosing the correct form and dosage of nutritional supplements (when appropriate), and engaging in regular exercise.

See Nutrition and Diet for Weight Loss

References:

  1. Bailey RL, Dodd KW, Goldman JA, et al. Estimation of total usual calcium and vitamin D intakes in the United States. J Nutr. 2010;140(4):817-22.
  2. Calcium: Fact Sheet for Consumers. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements web site. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Calcium-Consumer/. Updated November 17, 2016. Accessed March 3, 2017.
Further Reading: Osteoporosis Diagnosis
Pages: