Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and electrical muscle stimulation are two therapies that may be recommended if transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has not been successful.
Percutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Goes Deeper
Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation refers to applying electrical stimulation through small needles which penetrate the skin.
As with TENS, small wires are attached to a battery-powered electrical stimulator. A key difference is that needle electrodes deliver current closer to the nerves or the muscles beneath the skin, making the nerves less sensitive to pain. PENS therapy is likely to be used first in a health care or physical therapy setting, but can also be used at home.
While some people see an improvement right away, multiple treatments may be required. Treatments typically last about half an hour. An easing of muscle spasms from PENS may allow greater range of movement, leading to better physical functioning overall.
There is considerable variation in the duration of pain relief from PENS. The therapy is long-lasting for many individuals, but others need repeated visits.
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is one of the conditions in which PENS is often advised.1
Electrical Muscle Stimulation Builds Strength
Rebuilding muscle tissue is the goal of electrical muscle stimulation, or EMS.
An electrical muscle stimulator appears similar to a typical TENS unit, with electrodes attached by wires to the small, battery-powered stimulator. In EMS, the current is directed at weakened muscles, rather than nerves, prompting the muscles to contract and gradually regain their strength.
EMS can be helpful for rehabilitation after muscles have been weakened substantially or for less serious conditions, such as a pulled muscle.
One medical research study looked at EMS to treat muscle atrophy after surgery to reconstruct an anterior crucial ligament. Half the participants were given EMS therapy, with a control group not receiving the therapy. Those using EMS had thicker muscles and better recovery of knee extension strength three months after the surgery.2
While EMS may be helpful in gradually strengthening muscle, people considering EMS are advised to be wary of exaggerated marketing claims that EMS is a quick fix for boosting muscle strength.