Arthroplasty is the field of medicine dealing with the surgical reconstruction and total replacement of degenerated joints. Arthroplasty requires the use of prosthetics; thus key factors such as biomechanics, prosthetic design, metallurgy and biomaterials are taken into account for surgical procedures.

Various materials such as glass, cobalt chromium alloy, and Teflon have been experimented with in order to create biocompatible joint replacements. Researchers have also worked to find the most effective methods of securing the implant to the bone. The common types of arthroplastic procedures include total hip replacement and total knee prosthesis, and since 2004 artificial disc replacement to replace a spinal disc has been approved and in use in the US.