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Classification of Pain Management Techniques
In general, pain management techniques can be grouped in terms of their invasiveness.
- Some, such as physical therapy, are not invasive at all and do not inherently involve the use of medications
- Some pain management techniques, such as pain medications, are purely pharmacologic in nature
- Other techniques involve invasive techniques, such as injections
We can classify the most widely used pain management techniques in terms of the degree of intervention they involve:
There is an immense variety of noninvasive non-drug pain management techniques available for treating back pain and neck pain. A few of the most widely accepted in comprehensive pain management programs are the following:
- Exercise - physical exertion with the aim of increasing strength, increasing flexibility, and restoring normal motion. Includes the McKenzie method, water therapy, stretching exercises, aerobic routines and many others. May involve active, passive and resistive elements. Exercise is necessary for proper cardiovascular health, disc nutrition and musculoskeletal health. See also Exercise and Back Pain
- Manual techniques - manipulation of affected areas by applying force to the joints, muscles, and ligaments. Some evidence for the effectiveness of certain techniques is available.
- Behavioral modification - use of behavioral methods to optimize patient responses to back pain and painful stimuli. Cognitive therapy involves teaching the patient to alleviate back pain by means of relaxation techniques, coping techniques and other methods. Biofeedback involves learning to control muscle tension, blood pressure, and heart rate for symptomatic improvement. See also Chronic Pain Coping Techniques - Pain Management
- Superficial heating or cooling of skin - These pain management methods include cold packs and hot packs, ultrasound, and diathermy and should be used in conjunction with exercise.
- Electrotherapy - the most commonly known form of electrotherapy is transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). TENS therapy attempts to reduce back pain by means of a low-voltage electric stimulation that interacts with the sensory nervous system. Randomized controlled trials have yielded either positive or neutral results regarding the efficacy of TENS as a treatment for back pain.
Clinical research is continually being conducted to help determine which pain management therapies are the most effective in treating back pain and neck pain. Patients are advised to consult with their physician regarding any questions about a specific program.
Pain relievers and related drugs are used at every stage of the medical treatment of back pain, from the initial onset of acute pain to facilitation of rehabilitation, treatment of chronic back pain and alleviation of pain in cases of failed back surgery. The most common noninvasive pharmacologic treatments for chronic back pain are:
- Analgesics - or pain medications, including acetaminophen. Long-term use may involve risk of kidney or liver damage.
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) - includes aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen and COX-2 inhibitors. Long-term use may cause gastrointestinal ulcers, and may slightly raise the risk of heart attack.
- Muscle relaxants - used to treat muscle spasms due to pain and protective mechanisms.
- Narcotic medications - most appropriate for acute or post-operative pain. Since use of narcotics entails risk of habituation or addiction if not properly supervised, they are not often used for chronic conditions.
- Antidepressants and anticonvulsants - used to treat neuropathic ("nerve") pain.
- Neuromodulating medications - used to treat neuropathic and muscular pain.
For more information on pain medications, see Medications for Back Pain and Neck Pain